Vacuum has friction after all
Posted by keelynet on May 4, 2011
A BALL spinning in a vacuum should never slow down, since no outside forces are acting on it. At least that’s what Newton would have said. But what if the vacuum itself creates a type of friction that puts the brakes on spinning objects?
The effect, which might soon be detectable, could act on interstellar dust grains. Alejandro Manjavacas and F. Javier García de Abajo of the Institute of Optics at the Spanish National Research Council in Madrid say these forces should slow down spinning objects.
Just as a head-on collision packs a bigger punch than a tap between two cars one behind the other, a virtual photon hitting an object in the direction opposite to its spin collides with greater force than if it hits in the same direction. So over time, a spinning object will gradually slow down, even if equal numbers of virtual photons bombard it from all sides. The rotational energy it loses is then emitted as real, detectable photons.
The strength of the effect depends on the object’s make-up and size. Objects whose electronic properties prevent them from easily absorbing electromagnetic waves, such as gold, may decelerate little or not at all. But small, low-density particles, which have less rotational momentum, slow down dramatically. The rate of deceleration also depends on temperature, since the hotter it is the more virtual photons pop in and out of existence, producing the friction.
At room temperature, a 100-nanometre-wide grain of graphite, the kind that is abundant in interstellar dust, would take about 10 years to slow to about one-third of its initial speed. At 700 °C, an average temperature for hot areas of the universe, that same speed decrease would take only 90 days. In the cold of interstellar space, it would take 2.7 million years.
How to float above a vacuum
Houdini would be proud. It seems there is a way to levitate an object in a vacuum just by channelling the quantum fluctuations. The trick involves the Casimir effect, in which objects very close to one another are pulled together thanks to quantum fluctuations in the vacuum between and around them.
When two plates are brought ever closer together, for example, fewer fluctuations can occur in the gap between them. Fluctuations on their outer sides, however, continue as normal. This pressure difference on either side of the plates forces them to stick together.
In recent years, physicists have been trying to develop ways to reverse the Casimir effect and repel nearby objects, causing them to levitate.
Previous suggestions have included inserting various materials between the objects to be repelled – such as exotic metamaterials, which bend electromagnetic waves in the opposite way to that expected, reversing the Casimir effect. Now, Stanislav Maslovski and Mário Silveirinha of the University of Coimbra in Portugal outline a way to repel objects with no filler material. Their setup, described in a paper to appear in Physical Review A, uses 40-nanometre-wide silver rods stuck in a substrate like candles on a cake.
The metallic “candles” would channel the fluctuations between them, pushing anything placed there away. So if a perforated metal bar was lowered over the candles, with a candle poking through each hole, the bar should float, repelled in all directions by the candles between and around each hole.
This makes me think there is a correlation with Specific Speed;
Sec. 146. “I imagine that Specific Speed applies to all forms of matter. It consequently applies to light, to sound and vapor, quite as much as to lead, iron , or other ponderables, if it be true that everything which we can perceive is matter or partakes of the nature of matter. But if the assumption that light is material is a sound one, then the Specific Speed of which it is possessed must be the result of a very great affect upon its matter by dynamic force. There is nothing against such a postulate as this.
Sec. 147. “What is Specific Speed? It is a definite rate of motion of an atom about its own axis in a given direction…”
Sec. 161. “Specific Speed offers the most reasonable explanation, it appears to me, for when two definite speeds, each different, unite to retard each other, and thereby produce a new Specific Speed, of course, the behavior of the new Specific Speed in company with the second Specific Speed would be different from the action of the parent speeds mixed with the same agent.
Sec. 171. “When you admit that dynamic force (or magnetism) is the agent of motion – which by more or less affecting inert substance is productive of all the various aspects of matter, whether that matter is ponderable or imponderable, luminouse or non-luminous – you make a very important admission, in that if we can find a means of so controlling this dynamic force that we can of ourselves cause it to affect inert matter to a greater or lesser degree, or can cause it to augment or retard matter already possessed of its motion, we have the power of changing one element into another at our option.
The Aether/ZPE Spectrum
aether/zpe slowed down produces
….gravity slowed down produces
…….magnetism slowed down produces
……….electricity slowed down produces
………….light slowed down produces
…………….heat slowed down produces
……………….sound slowed down produces
………………….vibration slowed down produces matter
Or is it magnetism reduces to electricity which reduces to gravity? – Full Article Source
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